Lets Read The Basic Introduction and Basic Clauses of Constitution of Russian Federation
The present constitution of the Russian Federation was approved on December 12, 1993. Russia’s constitution came into power on December 25, 1993.
1993 constitution wordings are greatly encouraged by Mikhail Speransky's constitutional project . Sergei Alexeyev, Sergey Shakhray are the other authors of the Russian constitution.
It was the first milestone that Russia achieved after the demise of Soviet Union.This present constitution of Russia is most prolonged constitution in Russian history, that has been implemented in Russia.
Structure of the Constitution of Russian Federation
This Constitution of Russian Federation is divided in two main sections.
It has nine chapters on :
1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System.
Article 1-16, this chapter explains the basics of governance system in Russia. It declares Russia as a Democratic federal law-bound State. Comprising of Republics, Krays, Oblasts and Cities of Federal significance.
The section declares Russia as a secular and social state This giving equal rights to all of its citizens, irrespective of ideological and religious differences.
2. Rights and Liberties of Man and Citizen.
Article 17-64, this chapter gives equal human rights to everyone. It says that protecting the dignity of human rights in Russia , is the state responsibility .
3. The Federation System.
Article 65-79, this chapter officially names and explains the legal status of the all the subjects, states and territories of Russian Federation. The section mainly explains the jurisdiction of Russian Federation over its constituents.
4. The President of the Russian Federation.
Article 80-93, this chapter declares the President of Russian Federation as the Head of State. His official responsibilities are explained.
This section also has the election criteria of the president and his oath of loyalty towards his nation.
5. The Federal Assembly.
Article 94- 109, this chapter explains the structure of Federal Assembly of Russia. Mainly, it has two chambers, the Council of the Federation and the State Duma.
The council of Federations has two representatives from every federal subject. State Duma has 450 deputy members.
6. Government of the Russian Federation.
Article 110- 117 , this chapter states government as an executive power in Russian Federation. The President of Russia has the authority to appoint the chairman of government, with the consent of State Dumas members.
Article 118- 129, this chapter declares that judicial system in Russia would be governed by courts only. The judges are completely independent in their decisions. They are only liable to constitution of Russian Federation and its federal laws.
8. Local Self-Government.
Article 130- 133, this chapter explains that Russian citizens can locally choose their self governments. These local governments are made responsible for the protection of human rights, managing municipal property, local budgeting, taxations and local affairs.
9. Constitutional Amendments and Revisions.
Article 134- 137, this chapter explains the procedure of making revisions in the constitution of Russian Federation.
Amendments and revision proposals will be submitted to the President, the Council of the Federation, the State Duma, the government and the legislative bodies of federal subjects of Russia.
Part 2: Concluding and Transitional Provisions of Constitution of Russian Federation
This section presents the concluding and transitional provisions . It states that Council of the Federation and State Dumas will be elected for the 2 years.
The President, Council of Ministers, Deputies of the Council and the courts will fulfill their responsibilities as per the Constitution of Russian Federation.
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